Science of food

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Most people are unaware that the Food Industry is the largest manufacturing industry in the UK, but this is so. It is an industry, moreover, which is becoming increasingly dependent upon the application of science in order to understand and control raw materials, processes and products.

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Legislation, both UK and European, now largely controls the ways in which foods are produced and the ways in which food products must be described and labelled. The result of all this is that the industry is becoming more and more reliant on scientists, food scientists, to maintain and improve food quality and ensure legislative compliance.

Food Science deals with the structure and behaviour of food materials, and the changes which occur at the macro and the molecular level in foods when they are stored or processed. Such changes are particularly important when heat is employed in commercial operations or when food is cooked in the home. A food scientist must understand the scientific basis of the technical processes used to produce and prepare foods, whether these processes are traditional, such as the baking of bread, or involve modern technology such as the use of microwave ovens. A food scientist must also understand a number of fundamental pure science subjects, particularly chemistry, biochemistry, microbiology and mathematics and statistics and be able to apply such knowledge to foods and their behaviour.

For example, chemical analysis – relying less nowadays on ‘wet chemical’ methods and increasingly on sophisticated instrumental techniques such as various forms of spectroscopy and chromatography – is essential, not only to control food quality, but also to derive the nutritional and other information which must appear on packaging labels. Organic chemistry is required to understand the behaviour of those molecules (usually of molecular weight below 400 daltons) which are present and which variously contribute to nutritive quality and influence properties such as colour, flavour and resistance to oxidative deterioration. Biochemistry forms the basis for understanding the role of enzymes in foods. Enzymes in foods are responsible for phenomena as diverse as the ripening of fruits, ripening of cheeses, post-mortem changes in meats and deterioration in many foods upon storage. A food scientist must understand and seek to control such changes.

The appearance and texture of a food is extremely important, it must be attractive if the food is to be purchased and consumed with pleasure and the experience repeated. These attributes can be understood through the application of physics and physical chemistry. Similarly, phenomena such as the elasticity of dough (essential to the production of bread) and the specific characteristics of colloids (e.g. milk) and gels (e.g. table jellies) can be understood and exploited through the application of physical sciences.

Microbiology is a vitally important foundation of food science, not only because of the hazard to health which arises from any lack of hygiene when food is handled, but also because a controlled use of micro-organisms is essential to the production of a wide range of foods and beverages such as cheese, yoghurt, bread, wine and beer.

Food additives have rightly become of great concern to the general public. However, the use of these substances (which imitate the action of natural food constituents) is very strictly controlled and the food scientist must understand what substances are allowed, when their use is justified, how they function and how their presence may be established and measured.

Food technology, as distinct from food science, relates to the practicalities of food preservation and the ‘manufacture’ of a large and diverse range of good products. The food technologist is more concerned with the practical operation of food processing equipment and carrying out processes than understanding in depth the underlying science which governs the processes being carried out. However, it is not possible to draw a hard and fast line between the two disciplines – the food technologist must understand much of the science which underpins the technology and the scientist, in turn, must be able to apply scientific knowledge to technological operations.

Most food science university courses include an element of food technology (e.g. Nottingham University, Leeds University – where we prefer the term ‘food processing’) and some degree of specialisation in technology may be possible, a certain amount of science is , of course, essential for food technologists and is included in all such courses. A number of institutions (e.g. Reading University) offer separate courses in food science and food technology. Food technology courses frequently include an industrial placement (sandwich courses) as do some food science courses.

Combined Honours or Joint Honours degree courses, in which food science can be coupled with another, usually related, discipline such as biochemistry, chemistry, microbiology or nutrition, are offered by a number of traditional universities (e.g. Leeds, Reading, Surrey) and, with the absorption of polytechnics and certain colleges into the university sector, the number of available food science, food technology and related courses has expanded somewhat in recent years.

Food science and food technology are vocational courses and the relatively small number of courses available means that, in most years, the supply of good graduates in the two disciplines is less than that required to meet the demand so that employment prospects remain excellent. Careers are varied and challenging and range from those in food production through quality control to fundamental research. It should also be remembered that most food production companies are specialists and therefore their products, and the associated science, differ from company to company.

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For complete details about study in uk, visit abroad education corner.

Zenion’s Solar Powered Technology Will Help Reduce World Food Shortage Through a New Humanitarian Crowdfunding Campaign

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Rohnert Park, CA (PRWEB) April 10, 2015

Zenion Industries, Inc. has launched a first ever crowd-funding campaign on the web site indiegogo at: which offers people worldwide an opportunity to experience Zenion’s patent pending ionization technology. The company’s new business model enables the benefits of increased crop production to be shared free, through donations of product, to third world farmers.

The Ion-A-Gro device is an Eco-friendly, solar powered electronic unit which is mounted above plants to supply them with an increased amount of ions during photosynthesis. Decades of research have proven that plants respond quite favorably to increased ionization in a natural, non-harmful way by growing healthier and producing more flora, fruit, and vegetables. Herbivores, such as ants and aphids are also discouraged from invading plants under treatment, thereby reducing pesticide use. Until now, it has not been practical to treat plants in this manner, but the Zenion technology changes all of that!

Successful experimentation has been done on numerous types of plants including grapes, tomatoes, beans, cannabis and sugar cane. From the backyard garden to large scale crop management, this technology has the potential to increase food production substantially. With a growing world population estimated to be 9 billion by the year 2040, we need more “Green” answers like this to feed people and livestock.

Zenion was established in 1979 and distinguished itself as an expert in the field of ionization physics and electronics by developing and patenting many products utilizing ion technology.

For more information about the technology and product, please review Zenion’s web site at:


Mr. Jim Aise

Zenion Industries, Inc.

(707) 584-3663


US Leads World in Hemp Food, Beauty Sales

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US Leads World in Hemp Food, Beauty Sales
U.S. hemp product sales are growing fast. The Hemp Industries Association (HIA; Summerland, CA) estimates 21.2% retail sales growth in 2014 for hemp food and body care products, putting the 2014 total at $ 200 million. If other hemp-based products are …
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Second annual Hemp Expo comes to Loveland on Saturday
The second annual Hemp Expo will take place from 10 a.m.-6 p.m. Saturday at the Ranch Events Complex, 5260 Arena Circle in Loveland. Some hemp supporters say Colorado farmers, who are allowed to grow the crop because of the state's Amendment 64, …
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Yasheng Group Announces Hemp Contract Farming Program
Yasheng Group (OTCQB: HERB), a high-growth diversified China-based agricultural conglomerate with U.S. headquarters in Redwood City, California, today announced a hemp contract farming program for the Spring 2015 growing season. The program was …
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Hemp Oil: A Super Food

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For all of you who are still on the “Just Say No” bandwagon, you might believe that hemp seed oil, which is derived from the seeds of the cannabis plant, is just another way for those dang hippies to get high. However, while the flowers this controversial plant are capable of bringing about mild hallucinations and making everything on FOX News seem hilarious, the seeds and the beneficial fatty oils that they contain, will do no such thing. In fact, hemp seed oil is thought to be one of the most beneficial supplements a person can take in order to maintain an active and healthy lifestyle.

Once upon a time before politicians and business interests got involved, hemp was an important crop with any industrial and medicinal uses. On the health front, the seeds of the hemp plant were found to be an almost perfect food source, containing 80% of the essential fatty acids that our bodies need as well as globule edestins which is a rare protein that is similar to globulin. Hemp oil is easily digestible and contains pretty much all of the essential fatty acids that the body needs in order to stay functioning properly. Modern Research studies have found that taking hemp oil on a regular basis can help repair a damaged immune system and even reverse wasting making it an important natural supplement for both cancer patients and people with AIDS

Taking Internally Hemp Oil Can:

Increase vitality Help with motor skills Ease Arthritis Pain Strengthen the Immune System Treat Tuberculosis Decrease Sun Related Damage to the skin

People with conditions caused by deficiency in LA (Omega 6) and LNA (Omega 3) can be treated by taking hemp oil because it has those essential fatty acids (EFA) in balanced, ideal proportions.

Hemp seed oil has a low level of Stearic acid (18:0) which is beneficial for health because high levels of Stearic acid form flow-impeding clots in blood vessels and work against the healing qualities of the EFA’s.

How much to take:

On the daily basis you can take 2-4 dessert spoons (up to 50 ml) per day. In the case of therapy you can increase the dose up to 150 ml per day for approximately 7 days, then return to the regular daily amount.

Hemp Seed Oil has a nutty flavor that most people find pleasant. It is an ideal additive to salad dressings, dips, or cold pasta. It is not suitable for frying, since excess heat will greatly reduce many of its life giving benefits. It can also be used externally to treat skin conditions such as eczema. You can find it many health food stores.

Yulia Berry is an independent health researcher and author of the best selling e-books Aloe – Your Miracle Doctor and “Pharmacy in Vegetables”. She distributes a weekly newsletter regarding great home remedies and has written dozens of natural health articles published on hundreds of websites worldwide. Yulia Berry’s new ebook Unlocked Secrets of Curative Garlic to be released soon.

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